Happy equinox and happy tree watching!! Some trees in your area may have already bloomed, and others may be still to come. Some trees put on such a lovely show that no one can miss their blooms. For others, it takes a sharp eye and sometimes a hand lens to see the blooms. I’d like to show you the details of a few of them. For this post, I’ve chosen ash and elm trees.
Elms, genus Ulma, have their own family, Ulmaceae, which is part of the Rosales order in the rosid branch of flowering plants. They are very early bloomers, and as a result they may have their blooms frozen. If they are able to form fruits, these grow before the leaves. The trees have an early display of “spring green” fruits, which then turn brown and blow away as the new leaves are emerging.
What’s the advantage in blooming so early and risking a late frost? These trees are wind-pollinated. The leaves would block the wind from the branches where the flowers form. Instead the trees take the risk and produce large numbers of fruits (“elm seeds”) as a trade-off.
The flowers of elms are tiny clusters of staminate and pistillate flowers that have tiny tepals, not showy petals. The stamens have dark anthers and the pistillate flower has two tiny, furry stigmas, usually light-colored. The ovaries start to enlarge soon after the trees bloom, and you can see the enlarging green disk that will become the fruits.
The fruit is known botanically as a samara, which literally means “elm seed” in Latin. A samara is a winged fruit that is wind-dispersed. Elm fruits have a single seed surrounded by a membranous ring.
Ash trees, genus Fraxinus, belong to the olive family, Oleaceae, which is part of the Lamiales order in the asterid branch of flowering plants. They bloom later than elms, but still quite early. Ash trees are dioecious, which means that they have their staminate and pistillate flowers on separate trees. The staminate or male trees are often planted as street trees. They have the advantage of not producing fruits, so not requiring a lot of clean-up. Their distinct disadvantage is that they produce abundant allergy-triggering pollen.
The staminate inflorescences bear two stamens per flower, like all the olive family. They start as tight, globular clusters. The more open inflorescences of pistillate flowers show the tiny green ovaries that rapidly enlarge. The fruits are another samara.